A computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device  which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Replacing early punched cards and paper tape technology, interaction via teleprinter -style keyboards have been the main input method for computers since the s, supplemented by the computer mouse since the s.
Keyboard keys buttons typically have a set of characters engraved or printed on them, and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence.
In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text, numbers, and symbols into application software such as a word processorweb browser or social media app. While typewriters are the definitive ancestor of all key-based text entry devices, the computer keyboard as a device for electromechanical data entry and communication derives largely from the utility of two devices: teleprinters or teletypes and keypunches.
It was through such devices that modern computer keyboards inherited their layouts.Adamu garba ii
As early as the s, teleprinter-like devices were used to simultaneously type and transmit stock market text data from the keyboard across telegraph lines to stock ticker machines to be immediately copied and displayed onto ticker tape. Earlier, Herman Hollerith developed the first keypunch devices, which soon evolved to include keys for text and number entry akin to normal typewriters by the s.
The keyboard on the teleprinter played a strong role in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication for most of the 20th century, while the keyboard on the keypunch device played a strong role in data entry and storage for just as long. The development of the earliest computers incorporated electric typewriter keyboards: the development of the ENIAC computer incorporated a keypunch device as both the input and paper-based output device, while the BINAC computer also made use of an electromechanically controlled typewriter for both data entry onto magnetic tape instead of paper and data output.
The keyboard remained the primary, most integrated computer peripheral well into the era of personal computing until the introduction of the mouse as a consumer device in By this time, text-only user interfaces with sparse graphics gave way to comparatively graphics-rich icons on screen.
Different types of keyboards are available and each is designed with a focus on specific features that suit particular needs. In fact, the mechanical layouts referred such as "ISO" and "ANSI" comply to the primary recommendations in the named standards, while each of these standards in fact also allows the other way.
ANSI standard alphanumeric keyboards have keys that are on three-quarter inch centers 0. Modern keyboard models contain a set number of total keys according to their given standard, described as,etc.
This number is not always followed, and individual keys or whole sections are commonly skipped for the sake of compactness or user preference.
The most common choice is to not include the numpad, which can usually be fully replaced by the alphanumeric section. Laptops and wireless peripherals often lack duplicate keys and ones seldom used.
Function- and arrow keys are nearly always present. Another factor determining the size of a keyboard is the size and spacing of the keys.Dreams have been described as dress rehearsals for real life, opportunities to gratify wishes, and a form of nocturnal therapy. A new theory aims to make sense of it all. Verified by Psychology Today.
Communication Success. It is their second skin and without these spinning wheels, they simply do not know how to function. It is important to distinguish healthy social influence from psychological manipulation. Healthy social influence occurs between most people, and is part of the give and take of constructive relationships.
In psychological manipulationone person is used for the benefit of another. The manipulator deliberately creates an imbalance of power, and exploits the victim to serve his or her agenda. Root causes for chronic manipulation are complex and deep-seated.
How can one successfully manage these situations? Here are eight keys to handling manipulative people. Not all of the tips below may apply to your particular situation. Simply utilize what works and leave the rest. For more in-depth tools on how to effectively handle difficult individuals, download free excerpts of my books click on titles : " How to Successfully Handle Manipulative People ," " How to Successfully Handle Narcissists ," and " How to Successfully Handle Passive-Aggressive People.
As long as you do not harm others, you have the right to stand up for yourself and defend your rights. On the other hand, if you bring harm to others, you may forfeit these rights. Following are some of our fundamental human rights:.
Of course, our society is full of people who do not respect these rights. Psychological manipulators, in particular, want to deprive you of your rights so they can control and take advantage of you.
One way to detect a manipulator is to see if a person acts with different faces in front of different people and in different situations. While all of us have a degree of this type of social differentiation, some psychological manipulators tend to habitually dwell in extremes, being highly polite to one individual and completely rude to another—or totally helpless one moment and fiercely aggressive the next.
When you observe this type of behavior from an individual on a regular basis, keep a healthy distance, and avoid engaging with the person unless you absolutely have to.
As mentioned earlier, reasons for chronic psychological manipulation are complex and deep-seated. It is not your job to change or save them. Consider your relationship with the manipulator, and ask the following questions:. Inevitably, psychological manipulators will make requests or demands of you.Senior photos 2021
For example:. If the manipulator has a degree of self-awareness, he or she will likely withdraw the demand and back down. On the other hand, truly pathological manipulators such as a narcissist will dismiss your questions and insist on getting their way.
If this occurs, apply ideas from the following tips to keep your power, and halt the manipulation. In addition to unreasonable requests, the manipulator will often also expect an answer from you right away, to maximize their pressure and control over you in the situation.
You can exercise leadership over the situation simply by saying:. Consider how powerful these few words are from a customer to a salesperson, or from a romantic prospect to an eager pursuer, or from you to a manipulator.
Effectively articulated, it allows you to stand your ground while maintaining a workable relationship. A psychological manipulator also becomes a bully when he or she intimidates or harms another person.Birdville high school football
The most important thing to keep in mind about bullies is that they pick on those whom they perceive as weaker, so as long as you remain passive and compliant, you make yourself a target. But many bullies are also cowards on the inside.
5 Warning Signs of Manipulation in Relationships
When their targets begin to show backbone and stand up for their rights, the bully will often back down.We all need to influence people sometimes. But most of us need to be better at it. Whether at work or in life, on issues big or small, people seek to change minds as a matter of course.
How can you distinguish between them? This includes polling more than 50, people, across three decades and four continents, on how decisions are made. And the process that I believe in, that I teach to thousands of people every year, comes with a promise: It is repeatable, predictable, and measurable.
It is also practical and actionable; it can be adapted by anyone, at any time, to any situation. Start with these six keys:. People move through six predictable stages—a universal decision cycle —whenever they make a change.
A smart, simple way to establish trust is to talk less and listen more. This is why influence requires urgency. To create urgency, ask probing questions that help people to consider the issue, contemplate the what-ifs, and comprehend the consequences. There needs to be a moment of truth, a moment of commitment. This makes your opener particularly important.
Not great, right?
The best openers include softer words and phrases, such as ask you, listen to you, or need your help. The good news? People are more likely to change their minds if they have at least one objection. To overcome objectionsyou must clarify, clarify, clarify.
Finallythe line between influence and manipulation often comes down to intent. So ask yourself if you believe. If your answer is yes, you have the very foundation of influencing—not manipulating.
Rob Jolles is a global speaker and trainer specializing in influence and persuasion and is a multi-best-selling author.Consider this case: Tonya plans to do Ybut Irving wants her to do X instead.
Irving has tried unsuccessfully to provide Tonya with reasons for doing X rather than Y. For example, Irving might …. Each of these tactics could reasonably be called a form of manipulation. Perhaps not everyone will agree that every tactic on this list is properly described as manipulation. And in some cases, whether the tactic seems manipulative may depend on various details not specified in the case as described.
For example, if Y is seriously immoral, then perhaps it is not manipulative for Irving to induce Tonya to feel guilty about planning to do Y. It is also possible that we might revise our judgments about some of these tactics in light of a fully worked out and well supported theory of manipulation—if we had one.
It should also serve to illustrate the wide variety of tactics commonly described as manipulation. Manipulation is often characterized as a form of influence that is neither coercion nor rational persuasion.
But this characterization immediately raises the question: Is every form of influence that is neither coercion nor rational persuasion a form of manipulation? If manipulation does not occupy the entire logical space of influences that are neither rational persuasion nor coercion, then what distinguishes it from other forms of influence that are neither coercion nor rational persuasion?
The Ethics of Manipulation
Is manipulation always immoral? Why is manipulation immoral when it is immoral? If manipulation is not always immoral, then what determines when it is immoral? Forms of influence like those listed above are commonplace in ordinary life.
Such global manipulation as we might call it is also typically imagined as happening via decidedly extra-ordinary methods, such as supernatural intervention, direct neurological engineering, or radical programs of indoctrination and psychological conditioning.
Global manipulation is typically thought to deprive its victim of free will. For a detailed discussion of this argument, see the discussion of manipulation arguments in the entry on arguments for incompatibilism.
Despite the differences between ordinary manipulation and the forms of manipulation in the free will literature, it is still worth wondering about the relationship between them. If global manipulation completely deprives its victim of free will or autonomy, might more ordinary forms of manipulation do something similar, but on a more limited scale? So far, few people have explored the connections between ordinary manipulation and the forms of global manipulation discussed in the free will literature.
Two exceptions are Long and Todd Until recently, manipulation has seldom been the subject of philosophical inquiry in its own right. However, the fact that manipulation is commonly thought to undermine the validity of consent has led to its frequent mention in areas where the validity of consent is at issue. One such area is medical ethics, where proposed conditions for autonomous informed consent often reference the need to ensure that consent is not manipulated.
The view that manipulation undermines the validity of consent is widely held among medical ethicists. However, there is far less agreement about how to determine whether a given form of influence is manipulative.
Some nudges merely provide better and more comprehensible information; these nudges seem best characterized as influences that improve the quality of rational deliberation.All goanimate voices
But other nudges operate by psychological mechanisms whose relationship to rational deliberation is questionable at best. Many of these nudges exploit heuristics, reasoning and decision-making biases, and other psychological processes that operate outside of conscious awareness. Would it be manipulative for a surgeon to exploit this framing effect to nudge the patient into making the decision that the surgeon thinks best?Manipulative people twist your thoughts, actions, wants and desires into something that better suits how they see the world and they mold you into someone that serves their own purposes.
Scary, right? Manipulation always start with guilt. See what they did there? How they turned that around to you? Manipulators will often force their own insecurities on you in an effort to control how you react towards them. You can understand that, right? The sheer purpose of that excuse is to take the focus off of your worries and suck you back into theirs. Consideration is shown with love while manipulation is ruled by guilt. They point out your weaknesses, then show you that with their help, you can do better, be better.
They have their best interests in mind. And in order to keep their wants and needs at the forefront of your relationship, they gently twist your thinking until you look to him for guidance on everything. Once that happens, manipulators can make you basically do whatever they want you to because you now trust them more than you trust yourself.
We all start out relationships with requirements and deal-breakers. Are you giving in to what they want out of feelings of guilt or because they have made you feel responsible for the way they feel? This guest article originally appeared on YourTango.Famicom everdrive compatibility list
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A new theory aims to make sense of it all. Verified by Psychology Today. Manipulative people have mastered the art of deception. They have several ways of doing this, as many of you will recognize. They will often take what you say and do and twist it around so that what you said and did becomes barely recognizable to you. They distort the truth, and may resort to lying if it serves their end. They can be passive aggressive or nice one minute and standoffish the next, to keep you guessing and to prey on your fears and insecurities.
They often make you defensive. They can also be extremely aggressive and vicious, resorting to personal attacks and criticism, dogged in their pursuit of getting what they want. They always say the problem is someone else. Manipulative people do not understand the concept of boundaries. They are relentless in the pursuit of what they want and have little regard for who gets hurt along the way.R Tutorial 23: stringr - Text Mining / Pattern Searching / String Manipulating
Crowding into your space—physically, emotionally, psychologically, or spiritually—is of no concern to them. They lack understanding about what personal space and identity mean, or just don't care. They can be likened to a parasite—in the natural world this is often an acceptable relationship. In human behavior, however, feeding off of someone at their expense is depleting, exhausting, weakening, and demeaning.
A manipulator avoids responsibilities for his own conduct by blaming others for causing it. Ultimately they may try to get you to take responsibility for satisfying their needs, leaving no room for fulfilling yours. Manipulative people prey on our sensibilities, emotional sensitivity, and especially conscientiousness. They know they have a good chance of hooking you into a relationship because you are a kind, feeling, caring person, and, of course, because you want to help.
They may cater to your goodness and kindness at first, often praising you for the wonderful person you are. They really just care about what you can do for them.
If you want an easy way to discern manipulators from empathetic people, pay attention to the way they speak about others in relation to you. They will often talk about you behind your back the same way they talk to you about others. Never waste your time trying to explain who you are to people who are committed to misunderstanding you.
Characterize people by their actions and you will never be fooled by their words. Always remember that what a person says and does are two very separate things. If the individual put as much effort into being a good person as they do into pretending to be one, they could actually be a good person. Regularly examine what you believe. As life progresses, our beliefs and attitudes may change, and we need to know how these changing ideas affect us.Asked by Wiki User.
It depends on your notebook. My notebook has 80 keys, my friends notebook has 84 keys. A standard computer keyboard has keys. A computer keyboard has additional keys. If your keyboard came with your computer than it is standard.
Count the keys. So you must of had the sense to count them There are keys in a full-sized computer keyboard. My boyfriend is very Manipulative.How to scan a line in c
Do not have manipulative nature. The function keys are the top-most row of keys on your keyboard F1 through F Home keys on a computer are the keys that your fingers go on. Based on the function, the computer keyboard are grouped into five parts.
They are function keys, control Keys, number keys, typing keys and movement keys. A keyboard has keys. A laptop keyboard has 84 keys. They are the keys on the first row of letters on a standard computer or typewriter keyboard. A standard computer keyboard has 26 alphabetic keys. There is one way to fix computer keys that don't work. Since computer stores don't sell individual keys, the only way is to buy a new whole keyboard that is a better version than the other ones so keys won't get broken.
Ask Question. See Answer. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Lydia Sankah Answered What are manipulative keys? What are the three keys that you press to log on to the computer? A notebook computer has how many keys? What are the 4 different keys in the computer keyboard?
What is the difference between the typewriter and the computer keyboard? How many keys in computer standard keyboard? How many keys on a laptop computer? How many keys on a full-sized computer keyboard? Define and give the parts of computer keyboard?
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